英语中谓语的修饰语

简单谓语,无论是动词还是动词短语,都只有状语修饰词。简单谓语可以被副词,副词短语或从句,动词不定式,副词宾语,独立主格,间接宾语和同根宾语修饰。

副词,副词短语和副词从句

  • The landlord collects his rents {monthly. | on the first of every month. | when the first of the month comes.}
  • We left the hall {early. | before the last speech. | while the last speech was being delivered.}

在上述每个例句中,简单谓语分别被括号内的副词,副词短语,及副词从句修饰。修饰动词的副词短语可以由关系副词或从属连词引导。

一、关系副词

  • Our colonel was always found where the fighting was fiercest.
  • The prisoner has not been seen since he made his escape.

二、从属连词

  • Archer resigned because his health failed.
  • The town lies at the base of a lofty cliff so that it is sheltered from the north wind.

三、动词不定式

可以用动词不定式修饰简单谓语。

  • The fire continued to burn.
  • The wind began to subside.
  • Kate began to weep bitterly.
  • That draughtsman seems to be remarkably skilful.

动词不定式可以包括补足语或修饰词,如最后2个例子。

四、副词宾语

简单谓语还可以用副词宾语修饰。

  • I have waited ages.
  • Arthur practised weeks.

副词宾语之外额外添加修饰语构成副词短语。

  • Walter ran the entire distance.
  • He stayed a whole day.
  • I will forgive you this time.

在第一个句子中,副词短语“the entire distance”像副词一样修饰动词ran。这个短语是由名词distance,其形容词修饰语the和entire构成。

五、独立主格

也可以用独立主格修饰简单谓语。独立结构中的实词与它的修饰语一起形成副词短语。

  • The ship having arrived, we all embarked.
  • The bridge across the chasm being only a single tree trunk, we hesitated to attempt the passage.

在第一个句子中,副词独立短语“the ship having arrived”等同于副词介词短语“on the arrival of the ship”,并定义动词embarked表达的行动时间。

六、间接宾语

简单谓语还可以被间接宾语修饰。

  • He gave me a watch. [= He gave a watch to me.]
  • Tom told me the whole story. [= Tom told the whole story to me.]

这些句子中,间接宾语me,等同于介词短语,是一个状语修饰语。此外,目的服务(Objective of service)也是一个状语修饰语。

七、同根宾语

简单谓语还可以被同根宾语,或包含这种宾语的短语修饰。

  • The officer looked daggers at me [= looked at me angrily].
  • The shepherd sang a merry song [= sang merrily].
  • The skipper laughed a scornful laugh [= laughed scornfully].

第一个例句中,同根宾语(daggers)像副词angrily一样修饰谓语动词(looked),因此它是一个状语修饰词。第二和第三个句子中,谓语动词(sang,laughed)的修饰语是由同根宾语(song, laugh)和其修饰词(a merry, a scornful)组成的副词短语。