英语语句中的主语修饰语

英语句子中的任何实词都可以带形容词修饰语,并且以主语修饰语最为重要。简单主语可以被形容词,形容词短语或形容词从句,以及分词,动词不定式,所有格和同位语修饰。

形容词,形容词短语及形容词从句

简单主语可以被形容词,形容词短语或形容词从句修饰。例如:

{Ivory trinkets | Trinkets of ivory | Trinkets which were carved from ivory} lay scattered about

这个句子的主语trinkets分别被形容词,形容词短语和形容词从句修饰。

大多数形容词短语是介词短语。而形容词从句可以由关系代词或关系副词引导。

1、关系代词

  1. The architect who designed this church was a man of genius.
  2. The book from which I got this information is always regarded as authoritative.
  3. A friend in whom one can trust is a treasure beyond price.
  4. The boys with whom he associates do him no good.

2、关系副词

  1. The spot where the Old Guard made their last stand is marked by a bronze eagle.
  2. The morning when I arrived in Rome is one of my pleasantest memories.
  3. The year after Ashton left home brought fresh disaster.
  4. The land whence Scyld drifted in his magic boat will never be known.

应注意,介词和关系代词往往能替代关系副词。因此,第2个例句中的when可以用on which代替。

3、分词

主语可以用分词修饰(有或没有修饰语/补足语)

  1. Exasperated beyond endurance, the captain cut the rope.
  2. John, obeying a sudden impulse, took to his heels.
  3.  Having broken one oar, Robert had to scull.
  4. The natives, fearing captivity above all things, leaped into the river.
  5. Albert left the room, looking rather sullen.

在第1个例子中,分词被副词短语修饰;第2和第3个例子中,它有一个宾语;在第4个例句中,它有一个宾语和一个修饰语;第5个例子中,它跟随表语形容词sullen。在分析时,可以把整个分词短语(由分词和伴随词汇组成)当做修饰主语的形容词短语对待;但把分词作为修饰词,然后分别列举它自己的修饰语更简单一些。

因此,在第4句中,简单主语natives被分词fearing修饰,而fearing带一个补足语captivity(直接宾语),并被副词短语“above all things”修饰。

应注意,尽管分词是主语的修饰词,同时还与谓语有特殊关系,因为它可以替代副词从句的位置。因此,第7句中的fearing等同于从句“because they feared”;如果用这个从句替代分词,当然是修饰谓语动词leaped。分词的这一双重功能与它具有形容词和动词两方面自然特性有关。在分析句子时,我们把分词看做名词的一个形容词修饰词,因为它的功能之一是替代副词从句,是不同固定风格的一个重要手段。

4、动词不定式

主语也可以用不定式修饰。

  1. Ability to write rapidly is a valuable accomplishment.
  2. Howard’s unwillingness to desert a friend cost him his life.

在第1个例子中,动词不定式有一个副词修饰词(rapidly);第2个例子中,它有一个补足语friend(也是它的宾语)。这些例子也可以像对待分词短语一样使用两种分析方法,

5、所有格

主语可以被所有格中的实词修饰。这种实词叫做所有格修饰语。

  1. Napoleon’s tomb is in Paris.
  2. A man’s house is his castle.
  3. One’s taste in reading changes as one grows older.
  4. A moment’s thought would have saved me.

在这些例句中,所有格中的实词修饰主语,并像形容词一样精确限制它的意思。

应注意,形容词短语经常被所有格替代。因此,在第一个例句中,可以用“the tomb of Napoleon”替代“Napoleon’s tomb”。

6、同位语

主语还可以用替代实词的同位语修饰。

  1. Meredith the carpenter lives in that house.
  2. Herbert, our captain, has broken his leg.
  3. The idol of the Aztecs, a grotesque image, was thrown down by the Spaniards.
  4. Many books, both pamphlets and bound volumes, littered the table. [这里的主语books被两个同位语修饰]

同位语往往有自己的修饰语。

carpenter被形容词the修饰,captain被所有格our修饰,image的修饰语是形容词a和grotesque。

在分析时,整个同位语短语(由同位语和附加词汇)可以被视为主语的修饰语。然而,更好的做法是把同位语作为修饰语,然后分别列举修饰同位语本身的形容词。

名词性从句可以当做同位语使用,因此也有可能是形容词修饰语。

  1. The question whether Antonio was a citizen was settled in the affirmative. [这里的斜体从句被当做名词与question同位]
  2. The statement that water freezes seems absurd to a native of the torrid zone. [从句“that water freezes”是statement的同位语]

同位语位置上的形容词通常被叫做形容词同位语。例如“A sword, keen and bright, flashed from the soldier’s scabbard.”